mercredi 25 janvier 2017
As John Fitzgerald KENNEDY a former US president said “The most powerful single force in the world today is, neither communism, nor capitalism, neither High bomb, nor guided missile. It is man’s eternal desire to be free and independent”. To let human live freely, peacefully, and harmoniously the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) has been created by the general assembly gathering 58 states. In 2011 the number of member states increased up to 193.This declaration was internationally proclaimed on 10th December 1948 by the United Nations Organization (UNO).Madagascar became a UN member states in 1960. But now, about 70% of Malagasy people are unable to know their basic rights destroying their social life. They do not fully understand the importance of the human rights. Organizations are corrupted and those rights are still more a dream than reality .The Malagasy need a new day on which they can really see the equality with the same interests and freedom for everyone. It is said that: “to respect human rights is to promote life.” Respect is the feeling of consideration for valuable things. To promote life is to improve, to develop it. But the actual respect is not sufficient to promote life. Firstly, let’s see some examples which highlight the deficiency of the actual respect of UDHR, and talk about all problems related to that. Secondly, we will see how to promote life .Actually; this dissertation will be focused on teenagers’ vision of the reality.
               Through its 30 articles, this declaration advocates mainly the equality of rights and duty of everybody from birth till death. The 26th article proclaims: « Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. » In health terms, in the UDHR it is said that: « Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being […] ».In 25th article, it is precised that children have the right to special care. Also, the UDHR deletes all kinds of discrimination such as racial, sexual, politic, and religious one. Furthermore, this charter forbids all kinds of trade, violence neglecting human’s valor. That right is also applied to prisoners. They have the right to a good health too. In wedding terms, men and women of a full age have the right to a wedding without any limitation due to discrimination and with full consent of both. In this declaration, we can also see that everyone has the right to a liberty of expressions. In fact, it is important for all human beings to know that they have the same rights because it may bring to a spirit of brotherhood.
              In spite of those articles, its actual respect is not sufficient to promote life. To show that here are some real facts and problems related to it.
                To respect the 26th article in Madagascar, schools have been built through the island to provide national education. Yet, there is a gap between the levels of education from a school to another. It is because teachers are not enough in public institutions, or in countryside schools. So, they hire teachers with less experience, giving bad basis to children. Consequently, urban areas benefit from a better teaching than rural area. Also, it will be worst with the “globalization” meaning all technologies such as the Internet. People in the countryside will be disadvantaged because they will get less information than students and teachers from city. Education is the main factor of the development though, it is neglected by the State: It is proclaimed in the 23rd article that “everyone who works has the right to just and favorable remuneration…” but some faculty in Antananarivo university is on strike, for professors refuse to teach because they are not well-paid.
         In order to respect the 26th article of the UDHR, Madagascar and other countries settled a goal down in 1990 to reach a universal development for 2015, this project called Millennium (Millenaire) consists in giving a basic education to children, teenagers and adults. Furthermore, this challenge was twice renewed in April and September of 2000 in Senegal and New York. However in 2012, three years from the deadline, Madagascar fools itself with the weak instruction rate of 64.5 %.                                                                                                                                                              The first reason for this rate is that some parents in the countryside do not want their children to go to school because they think that it is a waste of time and money. Though education is free, in some other case, when teachers are not enough, parents association (FRAM) seeks teachers whom they must pay. Thus, instead of sending their children to school, parents make them work (keeping cow herd or mutton flocks, taking care of plantation).Not only do parents neglect children’s education but also, they disrespect the 19th article of the convention on the right of child (created from the 25th article of UDHR) saying that children shall be protected from all forms of exploitation. In contrast, most of the parents in developed countries give their children the opportunity to be well-educated from their childhood, which lets them have a different point of view, different ways of thinking and different knowledge. Although they may not be very intelligent, the important thing for the adults is that their children understand life, and get their own sense of reflection and their logic.
                The second reason is that according to parents, children have neither the right to express themselves, nor the right to take a decision. In Madagascar, ancestors used the following system in a family: the father detains the money and the power; nobody should contradict him, which is unrespectable. The mother takes care of the children and the father, she does the entire household, her duty is to bring up the children so that they could become polite and respect their father. And the children can neither talk nor move when they are with their father; they have to remain quiet and good. ”Manan-joky afak’olan-teny,manan-jandry afak’olan’entana” a Malagasy proverb suggests, which means that only the elder can take the speech, but children just carry out the order. So, we can notice that children did not have the right to freedom of expression before .Although that right is recognized now, this system always works in most families. We can still see it not only in the countryside but also in the city .Wherever in Madagascar patriarchy always works. But if parents had to decide to send one child to school, they would surely send their son, because the daughter must help her mother with household. However, according to scientific research, sending girls to school is more advantageous, for they are more receptive than boys. Nowadays, most of the children cannot express themselves because the ancestral system hand down from a generation to another. Parents always talk to their children as if they were only children but they can’t figure out the possibility that children have their own idea and their questions. Faced with that situation, parents leave children’s questions without answer, because according to them “children can’t understand». A complex from the colonization reverberates from a generation to another within the family resulting in   “fanjanahana” (older worship). Since children are not used to talking, it becomes hard for them to create link with the others, consequently, they are not open-minded, and they frequently fail in their studies.
Also, the Millennium project consists in decreasing maternal and infant mortality, and in slowing HIV/AIDS diffusion down. The link between the education, the maternity and infant mortality and the AIDS is the following: More girls than boys suffer from lack of education, yet uneducated girls are easily exploited. Thus, either they incur HIV/AIDS quickly and die, or they get pregnant. If this case happened, they would get a baby, whom they couldn’t bring up correctly or keep in good health, because of their lack of knowledge .However, 553 million of illiterate adults; up to 15 years old are women. Also, many poor people die, because they do not have access to adequate health care.
                 The respect of UDHR has also been applied among women. In Madagascar, on the one side women’s rights have evolved. For example, in terms of medicine women can have babies whenever they want. But on the other side, there is always a problem. These Women suffer violence, as the case of Malagasy women who have suffered violence and brutality in Lebanon. On the other hand, women suffer mentality which remained unchanged.  Let’s take the meaning of the Malagasy proverb “Ny hanambadian-kiterahana”, for men it means that if they get married they just have to procreate children. So they lay their duty and responsibility related to the child on the women. According to men, women are weaker and less able in society. So they are less paid and are not given the same chances as men. However women and men are all intelligent and able. Nowadays, if women are advanced in some countries: they take part in political life, they have their value, and they are independent. Other women stay at their starting point, such as in Saudi Arabia their life is controlled by men, in India, women are married early without their consent. Yet, all those countries are members of the UN. Consequently, the main problem is tradition: even if men and women have the same right now, women will always be a prolific being for men.
                 The UDHR deletes, not only sexual discrimination but also racial one .But it is not respected. For example, in Madagascar, during the colonization, Gallieni used the tribalism politicy, he has shared the country to reign .But now, we can still feel the effect of this politic because people from other regions and from Analamanga region are frequently in conflict. In contrast,  if the USA was a country which discriminates black and white people before, black had not the right to live in residential areas, black and white had their own seats in the bus .Now we can see their evolution with Africa America as the President of the USA :Barack OBAMA.
                 Finally, let’s talk about the violence, prisoners and unfair accusation. Since 2009, Madagascar has been in crisis and the Island has got itself into a bad situation. Poverty has become higher; to fight against it, the Amnesty International brought their help without succeeding. Disrespecting the 5th article saying that:” No one shall be subjected to […] a cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment”.A killing took place in Ambotsirohitra on February 07th,2009 causing many casualties including about 50 killed and  250 injured. In addition, many important rights were abused such as: the arbitrary arrest of the politicians and the intimidation of journalists with the restrictions on freedom of speech especially the press. In fact, they cannot express their thoughts freely or reveal all the information they have, especially those which can incriminate the government because it can lead them to jail, thus people do not get full information.
Also, the 5th article is applied to prisoners and they have the right to a good health too. However the conditions of life in Detention Center are harsh and remain a serious problem, they are malnourished because of the poverty of the country and it is the most common cause of death. In the first part of the 11th article it is said that:” Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defense.” But people are frequently accused without any proof. It is a violation of their right.
             In front of those problems which are not only spreading its influence, but also stopping and hindering the development, how to promote life?
            To avoid violence in jail, the State should frequently control the condition of life and the respect of the prisoner’s rights. As for education, the State should take charge of all public schools, and popularize the existence of those schools.
                 Also, they should explain all advantages of education to children and adults to let them fulfill their dreams and their ambitions without excluding poor people. Then, States should broadcast all possible information to balance the knowledge of people in rural and urban areas. Organizations and institutions (such as United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization: UNESCO, United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund: UNICEF, World Health Organization: WHO, United Nation Funds for the Population: UNFPA) should also give a hand to undeveloped countries.
              Therefore, parents should be aware and take their responsibility by taking part in educating projects. From these projects, they should communicate with their children about schools and education. At the end of their elementary school, States should give children the best orientation which fit them, and adapt the school curriculum to the countries real fact, in order to keep them away from leaving school. To avoid or to slow the early wedding down, the education among boys and girls should be equalized, they should be given sexual education from their adolescence and advice   about early pregnancy risk .All along their studies, parents should support children and communicate with them. It is important for harmonious development of teenagers and children to make them trust in themselves, avoiding risky behavior. Furthermore, adolescents and adults should know family planning utility.
           Thus, education is the most important factor for continuing and lasting development.                                                                                                                               We have also seen that one of the problems, not only among education, but also among women and other terms, is tradition. We have to change our mentality, because some of our culture doesn’t match with the evolution and it blocks the way to the development. To escape that deadlock, we should adapt our culture to actual life. Those traditions are, yet, our inheritance, if we stop believing in it, we destroy our past and our entire ancestors’ effort. However, we must evolute. So as to balance evolution and tradition, we should maybe redefine our tradition and culture, so that its influence among the development becomes positive.
                 To sum up, the respect of the UDHR is a powerful factor of the harmonious development of the humanity. But the word “respect” is not sufficient; we should defend, apply, and fight for our rights. Also their continuing reclamation with adequate disposition and politicked willing is needed. One thing that should be done is to decrease military spending in order to increase the budget for education, health, food and social helps. Consequently, there must be justice to fight against corruption, as Alexander HAMILTON said:”The first duty of the society is justice” To get a real development  the State should especially put a stress on the quality and the quantity of education, for it is the fundamental key to get the whole country out of the poverty.  In our opinion, despite its political crisis, Madagascar could be a heaven on Earth but there is still a long way to go.
Essay 42, RLM, RMH, RRS

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